Eliminate data redundancy.
One of the biggest elements of "good" database design is reducing data redundancy. This means eliminating any objects which aren't required or necessary.
Don't have a field for Date of Birth and another for Age for example. Don't hold the number of products sold by salesperson in one table and a list of every sale in another table. One element is redundant so get rid of it.
We can help achieve this by proper use of multiple tables and using foreign keys to join them.
How would that look in practice?
If we ran a fintech startup, we would have one table for Customers and another table for Accounts. Customers could have multiple accounts. Similarly, a single account could have more than one customer connected to it (like a joint mortgage or credit card). We would then have another table that shows the combinations of Customer and Account connections. Let's see it in an example.
We can write our SQL query to bring back the Customer Name, Account ID and Account Type for all customers and their connections to their accounts.
Try the next lesson
INNER JOIN CustAccConn
ON Customers.CustomerID = CustAccConn.CustomerID
INNER JOIN Accounts
ON CustAccConn.AccountID = Accounts.AccountID;